量子纠缠,【名师辅导】高中英语语法——虚拟语气精析,麻将规则

【引荐读者】高中各年级学生

【文章类型】要点常识

【介绍】本文将主要从为什么要用虚拟口气、何时运用虚拟口气以及怎样用虚拟口气打开整理并结合典型比如进行剖析。

【撰稿教师】海风教育 肖亮光

一、虚拟口气的效果

虚拟口气通常被用来表明说话的主体所说的话并不是现实,而是一种斗胆的假定、夸姣的希望、置疑或估测。

二、何时用虚拟口气

1.虚拟口气用于条件状语从句

(1)表明与现在现实相反的假定,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用一般曩昔时(be动词用were),而主句中的谓语动词用“would/should/could/might+动词原形”。

【例】If I were you, I would buy that house.

If he had time, he should go with you.

(2)表明与曩昔的现实相反,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用曩昔完成时,主句中的谓语动词则用“would/should/might/could+have+曩昔分词”。

【例】If he had taken my advice, he would have succeeded in passing the examination.

(3)表明与将来现实相反,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用一般曩昔时或“should/were to+动词原形”,而主句中的谓语动词则用“would/should/could/might+动词原形”。

【例】If it were to rain tomorrow, the football match would be put off.

(4)当条件状语从句表明的行为和主句表明的行为所发作的时刻不一致时,动词的方式要根据它所表明的时刻作相应调整。

【例】If they had worked hard, they would be very tired now.(从句说的是曩昔,主句指的是现在)

2.虚拟口气用于名词性从句

(1)虚拟口气在宾语从句中的运用。

①“wish+宾语从句”表明不能实现的希望,译为“要是……就好了”等。表明现在不能实现的希望,从句中的谓语动词用一般曩昔时;表明将来不能实现的希望,从句中的谓语动词用“would/could+动词原形”;表明曩昔不能实现的希望,从句中的谓语动词用“had+曩昔分词”或“could/should+have+曩昔分词”。

【例】I wish it were spring all the year round.

I wish I had known the answer.

I wish I could fly like a bird.

②在表明主张、要求、指令等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should能够省掉。常见的动词有:suggest,advise,propose,demand,require,insist,request,command,order等。

【例】She suggested we (should) leave here at once.

The doctor ordered she should be operated on.

(2)虚拟口气在同位语从句和表语从句中的运用。

表明主张、要求、指令等的名词,如advice,idea,order,demand,plan,proposal,suggestion,request等,这以后的表语从句和同位语从句中谓语动词用“(should+)动词原形”,should能够省掉。

【例】His suggestion that we (should) go to Shanghai is wonderful.

My idea is that they (should) pay 100 dollars.

(3)虚拟口气在主语从句中的运用。

在主语从句中,谓语动词的虚拟口气用“(should+)动词原形”的结构,表明惊讶、不相信、理应如此等。

It is necessary (important,natural,strange,etc.)that we (should) clean the room every day.

It was a pity (a shame,no wonder,etc.)that you (should) be so careless.

It will be desired (suggested,decided,ordered,requested,proposed,etc.)that she (should) finish her homework this afternoon.

留意:这种从句表明的是现实。假如人对这种现实表现出惊讶的情感,就可用虚拟口气;反之,假如不表明惊讶等情感,that从句也可用陈述句口气。

【例】It is a pity that you can’t swim.

3.虚拟口气在其他场合的运用

(1)虚拟口气在as if/as though,even if/even though等引导的表语从句或状语从句中,假如从句表明的动作发作在曩昔,用曩昔完成时;指现在情况,则用一般曩昔时;指将来情况则用曩昔将来时。

【例】He did it as if he were an expert.

Even if she were here, she could not solve the problem.

(2)虚拟口气用于定语从句中。

这种从句常用于句型“It is (high)time (that)...”中,定语从句的谓语动词用一般曩昔时(be用were)或“should+动词原形”,意思是“(现在)该……”。

【例】It’s time that I picked up my daughter.

It’s high time we were going.

(3)虚拟口气用在if only引导的感叹句中。

【例】If only I were a pilot.

If only I had taken his advice.

(4)虚拟口气在一些简略句中的运用。

①神态动词的曩昔式用于现在时态时,表明说话人谦善、谦让、有礼貌或口气含蓄,常出现在日常会话中。

【例】It would be better for you not to stay up too late.

Would you be kind enough to close the door?

②用于一些习气表达法中。

【例】Would you like a cup of tea?

I would rather not tell you.